011 482-3010
Polyps Explained: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

Polyps Explained: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

A polyp is a tissue growth that protrudes from a bodily surface, usually a mucous membrane.

It is an abnormal tissue growth that resembles little, flat bumps, or mushroom-like stalks.
The majority of polyps are tiny, measuring less than half an inch in diameter.

Polyps are treated differently depending on their size, location, and whether they’re benign or cancerous.

They can develop in the following areas inside the body:

  • Colon (colorectal)
  • Stomach (gastric)
  • Cervix (cervical)
  • Uterus (endometrial)
  • Bladder
  • Ear canal (aural)
  • Nose (nasal)
  • Vocal cord (throat)
     

Types of Polyps 

 

There are two common types of polyps shapes: pedunculated (suspended from a stalk) and sessile (flat and emerges from the surrounding tissue). 

Polyps are not all the same.

The five most prevalent forms of colon and rectal polyps are as follows:

 

Adenomatous (tubular adenoma) 

Adenomatous is the most common type of colon polyps. They are typically tiny, measuring less than 1/2 inch in diameter. They grow in a tube shape, as the name tubular adenoma suggests.

When this sort of polyp is discovered, it is examined for signs of cancer. Although only a tiny fraction of adenomatous polyps progress to malignancy, practically all malignant polyps begin as adenomatous polyps.

Fortunately, the transformation of these polyps into colon cancer takes a long time so they can be detected and removed before that happens with frequent screening.

 

Inflammatory 

Non-neoplastic intraluminal projections of mucosa made up of stromal and epithelial components as well as inflammatory cells are known as inflammatory polyps. 

People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more likely to develop these.

These polyps are also known as pseudopolyps because they are not actual polyps but rather form as a result of chronic colon inflammation.

 

Serrated

Serrated polyps might develop malignant depending on their size and location in the colon. Precancerous polyps are larger serrated polyps that are often flat (sessile), difficult to identify, and found in the upper colon.

Under the microscope, the polyps are distinguished by their saw-toothed appearance. Only by removing polyps and analyzing them under a microscope can the types of polyps be identified.

 

Hyperplastic

Hyperplastic polyp, or small, serrated polyp in the lower intestine that forms at the colon’s end, is rarely cancerous. It is the growth of additional cells that stretches from your body’s tissues. 

Your stomach may also develop hyperplastic polyps. In fact, stomach polyps of this sort are the most prevalent.

Small stomach polyps are usually unnoticeable and do not produce any symptoms but as you become older, your chances of developing stomach polyps increase.

 

Villous Adenoma (Tubulovillous Adenoma)

Tubular adenomas are common in small adenomas, but villous adenomas are more common in larger ones.

Villous or tubulovillous adenomas have a high chance of developing into cancer. They are frequently sessile, making removal more difficult.

Smaller villous adenoma polyps can be eliminated with a colonoscopy, while larger polyps may need surgery to be completely removed.

The vast majority of polyps do not progress to malignancy. Certain forms of polyps have a higher risk of developing cancer.

The removal of polyps during a colonoscopy lowers the chance of colon cancer developing in the future.

polyps explained symptoms treatment - Polyps Explained: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

 

What are the Causes and Risks of Polyps

 

There is no obvious cause as to why polyps exist and there are times that doctors can’t determine their cause.

But they often develop from the abnormal growth of cells. The causes can also depend on their location.

Some others are as follows:

  • Cysts
  • Tumors
  • Excess estrogen
  • Inflammation
  • Mutation in the genes of colon cells
  • Severe stomach inflammation

Anyone can get polys but according to the American Cancer Society, people who have the following factors are at a higher risk:

  • Age 50 and older
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Tobacco and alcohol use
  • History of polyps or colon cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (i.e., ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease)
  • Type 2 diabetes

Polyps and colon cancer are also linked to some hereditary disorders, such as:

  • Gardner’s syndrome affects a small number of people. It usually causes benign or noncancerous growths to become cancerous.
  • Lynch syndrome, commonly known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is the most frequent cause of hereditary colorectal (colon and rectum) cancer.
  • MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is a rare disorder in which a person’s colon and rectum are covered in adenomatous polyps (abnormal tissue growths).
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) increases the chance of hamartomatous polyps in the digestive tract, as well as cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, pancreas, stomach, testicles, ovaries, lung, and cervix.

polyps symptoms - Polyps Explained: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

What are the Symptoms of Polyps?

 

The majority of colon polyps do not cause any symptoms. You won’t know you have one unless you take a test to find out. If you do have signs, they may include the following:

  • Rectal bleeding – blood in your feces, in the toilet bowl, or on the toilet paper as you wipe could be symptoms of internal bleeding in your colon.
  • Stool color change – blood can appear in your stool as red streaks or as a black color.
  • Bowel habits change – constipation or diarrhea that lasts more than a week could be a sign of a bigger polyp or cancer in the colon.
  • Pain – a big colon polyp can cause crampy stomach pain by partially obstructing your bowel.
  • Anemia (lack of iron) – polyp-related bleeding might happen gradually over time, with no obvious blood in your stool, also causing fatigue and shortness of breath.

 

Other symptoms in the following locations of polyps are as follows:

  • Colon – blood in the stool, stomach ache, constipation, and diarrhea
  • Stomach – nausea, discomfort, soreness, vomiting, and bleeding
  • Cervix – usually no symptoms, however, they can include heavy bleeding during
    menstruation or sex, as well as an unusual discharge
  • Uterus – infertility, irregular monthly flow, and vaginal bleeding
  • Bladder – urinary blood, painful urination, and frequent urination
  • Ear canal – loss of hearing and dripping of blood
  • Nose – headache, nose pain, and loss of smell that are comparable to those of a normal cold
  • Vocal cord – a harsh, breathy voice that develops over a period of days to weeks

 polyps treatment and diagnosis - Polyps Explained: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

 

Diagnosis

 

Various approaches are utilized to get a sample depending on where the polyp or polyps are located. These are some of them:

  • Pap smear for cervix
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or endoscopy for small bowel and stomach
  • Colonoscopy for big bowel
  • Biopsy of places that are easy to reach so that a sample may be collected and studied under a microscope

 

Other screening tests you can take are the following:

  • CT colonography (also known as virtual colonoscopy) – employs specialized x-ray equipment to look for cancer and polyps in the large intestine.

    A tiny tube is introduced a short distance into the rectum during the exam to allow for gas expansion while CT images of the colon and rectum are captured. 

  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy – endoscopic treatment that allows your doctor to inspect your rectum and lower colon.

    A sigmoidoscope is a specialized endoscope that your doctor uses to visualize the area. It is a thin, flexible illuminated tube with a camera at the tip. 

  • Stool-based tests – look for aberrant DNA from cancer or polyp cells, as well as occult (hidden) blood.

    DNA mutations (changes) in particular genes are common in colorectal cancer and polyp cells.

 

polyps explained diagnosis treatment - Polyps Explained: Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Treatment

 

A pathologist (a doctor who specializes in evaluating tissue samples) will analyze your polyp tissue under a microscope to see if it’s malignant and any polyps discovered during your colonoscopy will almost certainly be removed by your gastroenterologist.

Prevention is better than cure so always have regular screenings and try to adopt a new lifestyle and healthy habits. 

If you’re in a high-risk situation, think about your options and consult an expert now.

 

Learn More from the Experts

 

GiDoc Johannesburg is here to provide you with expert medical advice in the field of gastroenterology.

Book an appointment online or give us a call at 011 482-3010 to find out more. 

 

 

DISCLAIMER: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

The information on this website is to provide general guidance. In no way does any of the information provided reflect definitive medical advice and self-diagnoses should not be made based on information obtained online. It is important to consult a Gastroenterologist or medical doctor regarding ANY and ALL symptoms or signs including, but not limited to: abdominal pain, haemorrhoids or anal / rectal bleeding as it may a sign of a serious illness or condition. A thorough consultation and examination should ALWAYS be performed for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. Be sure to call a physician or call our office today and schedule a consultation.

Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

 

Colon cancer is a type of cancer that affects the colon. Rectal cancer is a type of cancer that affects the rectum. Hence, colorectal.  

One of the most common cancers in the United States, colorectal cancer is a tumor that occurs in the lining of the large intestine (colon) or rectum.  

As people get older, their risk of colorectal cancer rises. Young adults and teenagers can develop colorectal cancer; however, the majority of colorectal cancers occur in those over the age of 50 (age of 68 in men while 72 in women, on average). 

Let us dig deeper as to what colorectal cancer is and what else you need to know about it like the symptoms, types, and risks. 

 

What is Colorectal Cancer

 

Colorectal cancer is a type of malignant tumor that affects the colon and rectum. It is also known as colorectal carcinoma, bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer. 

Colorectal cancer has four main stages with each stage marked by specific symptoms.

 Stage 1 typically shows no symptoms and can be found during routine screening.

 Stage 2 includes blood-filled stools that are black, tarry, dark-red, and gray and colonoscopy show mild inflammation or growths on the wall or ulceration near your anus.

 The third stage consists of bloody bowel movements with painful obstructions caused by severe bleeding.  

The fourth and final stage is the most dangerous, as it is often fatal. In this stage, cancer spreads to other parts of the body, causing severe pain and obstructions, which may be life-threatening.  

 

 colorectal cancer types - Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

 

 

Colorectal Cancer Types

  

Colorectal Adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum account for 95% of all cases of colorectal cancer. Rectal and colon adenocarcinomas form in the cells lining the large intestine in the gastrointestinal tract and spread to other layers.

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors
Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing cells that can appear in the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. They are responsible for 1% of all colorectal cancers and half of all small intestinal malignancies. 

Primary Colorectal Lymphomas
Primary colorectal lymphomas account for roughly 0.2 to 0.6 percent of all colorectal malignancies. Men are more likely than women to get this kind of colorectal cancer. 

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a rare type of colorectal cancer that develops in a type of cell found in the GI tract’s lining. GISTs develop in the stomach in more than half of cases. The second most common location is the small intestine and next is the rectum. 

Leiomyosarcomas
Leiomyosarcomas means “cancer of the smooth muscle,” affecting the three layers of the muscle in the colon and rectum that function together to guide waste through the digestive tract. 

Melanomas
Melanomas are skin cancers that can appear anywhere, including the colon and rectum. Malignant melanoma was thought to be the most common tumor metastasizing to the colon, despite having rare cases. 

 colorectal cancer symptoms - Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms of colorectal cancer do not initially appear so you may have one, but you are just completely unaware of it.

That is why it is critical to have frequent cancer screenings.

Take note of the following symptoms especially in the early stages: 

  • An alteration in bowel movement
  • Changes in stool color, and shape
  • Blood in your stool that makes it look dark brown
  • Bleeding from the rectum
  • Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling that your bowels aren’t completely emptying completely
  • Pain or cramps in the abdomen and bloating
  • Fatigue or exhaustion
  • Anemia
  • Excessive gas
  • Losing weight for no apparent reason

If colorectal cancer spreads to other parts of your body, you may have the following symptoms:

  • Jaundice (a condition in which the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes turn yellow)
  • Edema (swelling of the hands or feet)
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Severe headaches
  • Eyesight problems
  • Fractures of the bones 

 colorectal cancer diagnosis - Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

 

Diagnosis

 

The American Cancer Society recommends that everyone undergo routine screening every year starting at age fifty or sixteen years old with a simple exam called the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or sigmoidoscopy which involves looking into your rectum and colon.

 Your doctor may conduct the following tests to diagnose colorectal cancer: 

 Colonoscopy – a procedure that examines the colon and the rectum to detect changes or abnormalities. A long, flexible tube (colonoscope) is placed into the rectum during a colonoscopy. The doctor can see the inside of the colon thanks to a tiny video camera at the tube’s tip. 

 Virtual Colonoscopy (also called CT colonography) – employs specialized x-ray equipment to look for cancer and polyps in the large intestine. A tiny tube is placed into the rectum during the exam to allow for gas expansion while CT images of the colon and rectum are captured. 

 Gastrointestinal Exam (GI x-ray) – used for inspection, auscultation (listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope), and gentle palpation of the abdomen will be performed to detect visual abnormalities, bowel sounds, and softness/tenderness. 

 Other exams would be abdominal and pelvic CT, positron emission tomography (PET), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the body, and endorectal ultrasound.

 colorectal cancer treatment - Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

  

Treatment

 

 Depending on the stage (size and spread) of cancer, surgery may be required to remove the tumor, which may involve removing part or all of the colon. 

When deciding on the optimal treatment choice, the doctor will also examine the patient’s age, overall health status, and other features. 

Listed are some of the ways to treat colorectal cancer: 

Ablation – small tumors (less than 4 cm in diameter) are destroyed using ablation techniques rather than surgery. It can also be used to treat tumors that have spread to other parts of the body. 

 

Embolizationcan be used to treat tumors that are greater than 5cm (about 2 inches) in diameter and are often too large for ablation. It can be used in conjunction with ablation. 

 

Chemotherapy – cancer treatment that employs the use of strong chemicals to eradicate malignant cells. It is a systemic treatment, which means the meds work throughout the body to stop malignant cells from spreading. 

Targeted Therapy – bio-engineered medications that target specific proteins found on cancer cells are used. These medications can be used on their own or in conjunction with other treatments. 

Immunotherapy – the use of drugs to assist a person’s immune system in recognizing and destroying cancer cells. Some people with advanced colorectal cancer may benefit from immunotherapy.

Radiation Therapy – a cancer-killing treatment that uses high-energy rays (such as x-rays) or particles. It is frequently used to treat rectal cancer rather than colon cancer.
Chemotherapy combined with radiation therapy can improve the outcome of some colon and rectal cancers. These two treatments are called chemoradiation. 

External Beam Therapy (EBT) – a type of radiation therapy that involves directing many high-energy x-ray beams directly at a patient’s tumor over a period of one to six weeks.

These x-rays direct radiation to the patient’s tumor, destroying cancer cells while limiting the effects on healthy tissues nearby. 

The goal of all these treatments will be to get rid of cancer, prevent it from spreading, and alleviate any unpleasant symptoms.  

But who treats colorectal cancer? 

Different sorts of doctors may be on your treatment team depending on your treatment options.

These medical professionals could be a gastroenterologist, colorectal surgeon, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, or surgical oncologist.

 colorectal cancer risk factor - Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

  

Risk Factors

 

Understanding the risk factors for colorectal cancer is important for prevention, since implementing preventative actions can minimize the risk of developing the disease. 

The following are some of the factors that may increase the risk of colorectal cancer:  

  • Age
  • History of health history or cancer
  • Certain health conditions or genetic syndromes
  • Race and ethnicity 

However, you can control some life factors such as weight, diet, activity level, smoking, and drinking. 

 

Conclusion

 

Colorectal cancer is a prevalent kind of cancer and a primary cause of mortality.

Early treatment can help eradicate malignant cells and improve the chances of a successful outcome. 

Symptoms, on the other hand, may not occur until later stages. Anyone who is at risk for colorectal cancer should talk to their doctor about being screened. 

Regular screening increases the likelihood of an early diagnosis.  

 

 

 Copy of Copy of Copy of Copy of WHAT IS A 2 - Colorectal Cancer: What You Need to Know

 

 

Learn More from the Experts
 

 

GiDoc Johannesburg is here to provide you with expert medical advice in the field of gastroenterology.

 Book an appointment online or give us a call at 011 482-3010 to find out more. 

 

 

 

DISCLAIMER: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

The information on this website is to provide general guidance. In no way does any of the information provided reflect definitive medical advice and self-diagnoses should not be made based on information obtained online. It is important to consult a Gastroenterologist or medical doctor regarding ANY and ALL symptoms or signs including, but not limited to: abdominal pain, haemorrhoids or anal / rectal bleeding as it may a sign of a serious illness or condition. A thorough consultation and examination should ALWAYS be performed for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. Be sure to call a physician or call our office today and schedule a consultation.

When You Would Need a Routine Colonoscopy

When You Would Need a Routine Colonoscopy

At GIDOCJHB, we treat patients with a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions, and we use the latest medical advances in the industry.

We help you understand the basics of how a colonoscopy is performed, how to better prepare both the night before and on the day, and how to interpret results.

Colonoscopies can help save lives, and with colon cancer diagnosis under the age of 50 on the rise, it’s important to get your screenings done through an experienced gastroenterologist.

We understand that a colonoscopy can be uncomfortable at times (the truth is that colonoscopies are not nearly as bad as you probably think), but it can be a crucial procedure at detecting colon cancer at its early stages.

Due to the COVID 19 pandemic, we are also taking relevant measures to keep our patients, staff, and facilities safe so we can still provide you with important screening procedures.

 routine colonoscopy procedure - When You Would Need a Routine Colonoscopy

Why Colonoscopies Are Performed

A colonoscopy is a life-saving procedure performed by a gastroenterologist to screen for colon abnormalities inside your large bowel (also known as the colon) that may or may not be cancer.

It involves inserting a thin, flexible tube that has a small video camera attached, with makes it possible for a gastroenterologist to examine the entire colon and also take biopsies (small pieces of tissue) for further examination.

Colonoscopies detect cancers while they’re still in the early treatable stages, and can also be used to check the colon after cancer treatment.

 

You Should have a Colonoscopy if:

  • If you are 45 years of age with a family history of colon cancer. 50 years of age if you don’t have a family history
  • If you have a family history such as a parent or sibling that has or had been diagnosed with colorectal cancer, it’s recommended to book a consultation with a gastroenterologist as soon as possible to determine if your colonoscopy should be scheduled sooner.
  • If you are having symptoms of colorectal cancer such as rectal bleeding, dark-colored stools, diarrhea or constipation, abdominal pain and cramps, and unexpected weight loss, it’s recommended to speak with your gastroenterologist about your condition.
  • If you would like to look at the general condition of your colon to see if there’s any swollen tissue, ulcers, tumors, inflammation, unexplained objects, and bleeding.
  • If you’ve been diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Crohn’s disease, or ulcerative colitis in the past.
  • If you’ve been exposed to radiation around your abdominal or pelvic area at any point in your life, to treat prior cancer for example.
  • If you’ve had surgery to remove part of your colon.

 colonoscopy checkup procedure - When You Would Need a Routine Colonoscopy

What if they Find Something?

Generally speaking, if you have been going for your recommended colonoscopy checkups and your gastroenterologist has found polyps, it will be in its early stages, which means a very high chance of effective treatment, especially in stage zero (not extended beyond the inner lining of the colon) and stage one (grown deeper into the layers of the colon wall, but have not spread beyond the wall or into the lymph nodes.)

 

Your Colonoscopy Schedule

It’s best to discuss your colonoscopy schedule with your gastroenterologist as specific cases will require specific care.

However, it’s recommended to get your first screening between the ages of 45-50.

Your screenings will stop once you reach the age of 75 if you are healthy, or 85 if abnormalities were previously found. It’s important to note that as you age, your risk of developing polyps and colon cancer increases.

Because colon cancer develops slowly, most people will not need to have a colonoscopy more than once every five years, but it’s still best to discuss your unique situation with your gastroenterologist.

  • If your screening colonoscopy showed a healthy, normal colon, you may not need another screening for 10 years.
  • If you had one or two low-risk polyps removed, you should have another colonoscopy in 5 to 10 year.

preparing for a colonoscopy - When You Would Need a Routine Colonoscopy

How to Prepare for a Colonoscopy

It’s recommended to clear your calendar on the day of your colonoscopy and plan for a driver to take you back home as you will feel drowsy.

Your diet will play an important role in the days leading up to your procedure, but your gastroenterologist will advise you on foods to eat and foods to avoid.

More ways on how to better prepare for a colonoscopy

 

How a Colonoscopy Procedure Works

On the day of your procedure, you’ll be asked to change clothes either into a gown or something more light. and you’ll be given a sedative and/or anesthesia to make your feel more relaxed.

Once you feel a bit drowsy, you’ll be instructed to lay down sideways and bring your knees to your chest so the colonoscopy flexible tube can be easily inserted into your rectum.

A colonoscopy procedure usually takes around 30-45 minutes. Once your procedure is finished, you’ll still feel drowsy, which is why you should have someone drive you home.

It’s normal to experience small amounts of bleeding or bloating following your procedure, however, if your blood becomes heave or is accompanied by a fever, contact your gastroenterologist immediately.

 

What Should I Expect After a Colonoscopy?

Following your procedure, you’ll most likely stay at the hospital for about an hour for monitoring and be given instructions on how to care for yourself while at home.

You may also feel bloated and drowsy for a few hours, however, the sedatives should wear off soon thereafter.

Your recovery period is generally very fast, usually, by the next day you should feel much better and can continue your normal work routine and lifestyle activities.

Your gastroenterologist will share the results of your colonoscopy with you and discuss the next steps too.

Colon Cancer Risk Factors Prevention infographic 120x300 - When You Would Need a Routine Colonoscopy

DISCLAIMER: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

The information on this website is to provide general guidance. In no way does any of the information provided reflect definitive medical advice and self-diagnoses should not be made based on information obtained online. It is important to consult a Gastroenterologist or medical doctor regarding ANY and ALL symptoms or signs including, but not limited to: abdominal pain, haemorrhoids or anal / rectal bleeding as it may a sign of a serious illness or condition. A thorough consultation and examination should ALWAYS be performed for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. Be sure to call a physician or call our office today and schedule a consultation.

Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention

Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention

At GIDOCJHB, we provide modern screening technology, highly experienced, trained, and supportive staff, and a full commitment to the prevention and early detection of colon cancer.

We also understand that colonoscopy screenings can feel intimidating or even embarrassing. However, what matters is colonoscopies save lives.

Our team also takes great care in ensuring you’re comfortable throughout your procedure.

From regular screenings to innovative cancer treatment options, you can depend on GIDOCJHB to deliver an unsurpassed level of care along with the peace of mind all patients deserve.

 

What is Colon Cancer?

The colon forms a crucial part of the body’s digestive system, which comprises of the esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines.

The colon is the first 4 to 5 feet of the large intestine. Cancers that begin in the lower bowel are called colon cancers (also commonly referred to as colorectal cancer).

Colon cancer is one of the leading forms of cancer, both in South Africa and around the world. To find out more about how colon cancer affects men and women, click here.

colon cancer symptoms treatments - Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention 

Symptoms of Colon Cancer

Some early warnings may include:

      • Blood in your stool
      • Change in bowel habits
      • Fatigue
      • Stomach and bloating or cramps that take time to go away
      • Fatigue
      • Diarrhea, constipation, or feeling the bowels don’t fully empty
      • Stools that are narrower than usual
      • Weight loss for no known reason
      • Vomiting
      • Frequent gas pain, bloating, fullness, or cramps.

Unlike some other cancers, many people with colon cancer experience little to no symptoms in the early stages of the disease.

However, when symptoms do show, they’ll likely vary based on the cancer’s size and location in your large intestine.

If you have any of these symptoms, talk to your gastroenterologist. They may also be caused by something other than cancer.

The only way to know what is causing them is to see your doctor/gastroenterologist.

 

Colon Cancer Risk Factors

What You Can Control

The following risk factors increase your chance of developing colon cancer:

      • Obesity: Obesity is an important risk factor for colon cancer.
      • Unhealthy diet: Eat more fruits, vegetables, and fiber, and less animal and fat. Foods rich in calcium and folic acid (such as legumes, citrus, and broccoli) may also help to reduce your risk of colon cancer.
      • Smoking: Not smoking or quitting if you are currently a smoker is one of the top ways to prevent colon cancer.
      • Lack of exercise: Even with moderate physical activity like 3 to 3 times a week can make a difference, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator or walking short distances instead of using transport can help reduce your risk of colon cancer
      • Drinking alcohol in excess: If you choose to drink alcohol, do so moderately
      • Not getting screened regularly: most people should get their first colon cancer screening, a colonoscopy when they reach the age of 45.

Risk Factors You Can’t Control

      • Older age: the risks of developing colon cancer increase with age for both men and women
      • Personal medical history: If you have a history of precancerous colorectal polyps, you are at increased risk for colorectal cancer
      • Family history: If you have a first-degree relative who has had colorectal cancer, you are at an increased risk as well
      • History of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis, increase your risk of colon cancer.

 colon cancer diagnosis - Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention

Colon Cancer Stages

Stages indicate how far cancer has spread and the size of any tumors. The stages develop as follows:

      • Stage 0: Cancer is in a very early stage. This is the easiest stage to treat because cells are only in the inner lining and haven’t spread deeper.

      • Stage 1: Cancer has grown into the next layer of tissue but has not reached the lymph nodes or any other organs.

      • Stage 2: Cancer has spread to the outer layers of the colon, but it has not spread beyond the colon.

      • Stage 3: Cancer has spread into nearby lymph nodes

      • Stage 4: Cancer has reached other parts beyond the wall of the colon. As stage 4 progresses, colon cancer reaches distant parts of the body.

Colon Cancer Risk Factors Prevention infographic - Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention

Diagnosis

      • The following tests may be used for colon cancer screening or to find out if cancer has spread. Tests also may be used to find out if surrounding tissues or organs have been damaged by treatment.
      • Digital rectal exam (DRE): A gastroenterologist inserts a gloved finger into your rectum to feel for polyps.
      • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): a simple test that can be done at home and looks for hidden traces of blood in a bowel motion. FOCT can help discover colon cancer in its early stages in people without symptoms.
      • Fecal immunochemical test (FIT): This take-home test finds blood proteins in the stool.

Endoscopic Tests:

      • Sigmoidoscopy: Sigmoidoscopy is similar to colonoscopy, however, it only explores the lower part of the bowel, where cancer is more likely to develop. If a pre-cancerous polyp is detected during the procedure, a full bowel examination by colonoscopy is usually needed.
      • Colonoscopy: During a colonoscopy, a gastroenterologist uses a thin, flexible tube, enabled with a camera to check for abnormalities or disease in your lower intestine or colon.
      • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): An endoscope is inserted into the rectum. A probe at the end bounces high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal organs to make a picture (sonogram). Also called endosonography.

Imaging Tests

      • CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scan
      • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
      • PET/CT (positron emission tomography) scan.

colon cancer chemotherapy - Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention

Colon Cancer Treatment

Treatment and types of surgery of colon cancer mostly depend on the stage of cancer, its location, and on the patient’s general health. Several different types of treatment are used (sometimes just one, other times a combined approach).

Surgery

Surgery is the treatment used most often for colorectal cancer. Colon and rectal cancers require surgery if they are to be cured.

Radiation Therapy

In radiation therapy, high-energy x-rays damage or destroy cancer cells to shrink tumors.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is often given before or after surgery to shrink tumors or kill cancer cells, or if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy may be an option for patients whose cancer has specific genomic features.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy uses bio-engineered drugs that target specific proteins found on cancer cells. These drugs may be used alone or in combination with other treatments.

 

Colon Cancer Risk Factors Prevention infographic 120x300 - Colon Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention

DISCLAIMER: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

The information on this website is to provide general guidance. In no way does any of the information provided reflect definitive medical advice and self-diagnoses should not be made based on information obtained online. It is important to consult a Gastroenterologist or medical doctor regarding ANY and ALL symptoms or signs including, but not limited to: abdominal pain, haemorrhoids or anal / rectal bleeding as it may a sign of a serious illness or condition. A thorough consultation and examination should ALWAYS be performed for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. Be sure to call a physician or call our office today and schedule a consultation.

Most Commonly Asked Questions About Colonoscopy

Most Commonly Asked Questions About Colonoscopy

When it comes to important matters of the body involving your digestive tract, stomach, and colon, a gastroenterologist is a specialist and highly trained doctor to consult with.

GI doctors also assist patients with matters involving the pancreas, gallbladder, liver, and other organs involved in the elimination of waste.

To help answer some of your most popular questions, we’ve put together an extensive ‘FAQ’ article to share our most frequently asked questions about GI care.

This patient guide covers inquiries about our practice, procedural questions, and more.

We hope this information will help you understand better and prepare for your colonoscopy procedure.  Get in touch with us if you have any other questions or concerns.

 

1. What is a Colonoscopy?

A colonoscopy is an examination that enables your gastroenterologist to examine the lining of your colon (large intestine).

The GI inserts a colonoscope (a flexible tube with a camera at the tip) into the rectum and large intestine to carefully inspect the colon to look for signs of cancer or pre-cancerous lesions.

 

2. What is a Polyp?

During a colonoscopy procedure, a polyp may be detected by your gastroenterologist. Polyps are abnormal growths of tissue, which vary in size from 4cm to 5cm.

Because almost all colorectal cancers start as small polyps, the early detection and removal of these polyps during colonoscopy is an effective means to prevent colorectal cancer.

Polyps generally grow slowly, so a small precancerous polyp may take 10 to 15 years to turn into cancer.

 colonoscopy polyps removal - Most Commonly Asked Questions About Colonoscopy

3. What Happens if a Polyp is Found?

If the complex polyp is benign, with no signs of cancer present, then the patient may choose non-surgical removal instead of surgery.

If your gastroenterologist believes that removal of the polyp is needed, a wire loop or snare will be passed through the colonoscope.

This will sever the polyp from the intestinal wall via an electrical current, a procedure known as polypectomy.

 

4. How Often Should I Get a Colonoscopy?

Gastroenterologists usually recommend a colonoscopy when you turn 50, however, adults with a high risk and family history of colorectal cancer may need a colonoscopy at a younger age and more frequently.

It’s important to note that you will probably have other than your colonoscopy over the years, such as fecal occult blood tests, which can be a symptom of colon cancer.

 

5. Will the Colonoscopy be Painful?

Most patients do not experience pain and some don’t even remember their procedure, due to being sedated (you can choose to receive a sedative that makes you feel relaxed and drowsy.

Your gastroenterologist can discuss with you the best form of sedation to suit your needs.

Some patients do feel some cramping, but generally, their feedback is positive and easy-going. Patients usually find the prep more difficult.

 questions about colonoscopy - Most Commonly Asked Questions About Colonoscopy

 

6. Are Colonoscopies Safe?

Colonoscopies are generally regarded as very safe. However, as with any procedure, some risks can include:

  • Persistent bleeding after biopsy or polyp removal
  • Peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity)
  • Perforation of the intestinal wall (rare)
  • Nausea, vomiting, bloating, or rectal irritation caused by the bowel cleanse prep and/or procedure
  • Adverse reaction to the sedative or pain medication

There may be other risks depending upon your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your gastroenterologist before the procedure.

 

7. How Long Does the Procedure Take?

Patients are usually only with us for 2-3 hours, which also consists of pre-procedure steps to follow.

The entire procedure usually takes less than 30 minutes but can vary depending on several factors.

Once completed, the procedure requires patients to be monitored for a minimum of 30 minutes before discharge. 

 

8. What Should I Expect After the Procedure?

Upon completion of your colonoscopy, your gastroenterologist will review the findings, provide follow-up care instructions, and gastroenterology treatment recommendations with you and your driver/care partner.

Your driver/care partner needs to realize that you may not remember anything in great detail due to the effects of the anesthesia.

      • You may experience several minor effects including, but not limited to:
      • You will be tired for the day and may feel confused or forgetful. This may last up to 12 hours after sedation.
      • You may feel bloated and have gas pains and mild cramping.
      • You will be thirsty and/or hungry.
      • You may experience nausea or vomiting.
      • You may notice a small amount of rectal bleeding
      • You may not have a bowel movement for 48 hours after the procedure.

9. Is Colonoscopy the Best Way to Discover Colon Cancer?

Yes. Colonoscopy is the best way to discover and, in most cases, simultaneously remove potentially pre-malignant polyps.

It is still the gold standard for detecting colon cancer.

Screening for colon cancer works in two ways: first, by finding cancers early when treatment is most effective and second, by finding growths (polyps) inside the colon and removing them before they become cancer.

 colonoscopy questions and answers - Most Commonly Asked Questions About Colonoscopy

10. How to Prepare for a Colonoscopy

A clean colon is essential for the gastroenterologist to do an accurate examination for polyps or other abnormalities.

The most popular colonoscopy preparation method used involves drinking polyethylene glycol (PEG). It is odorless, tasteless, and is mixed with certain clear liquids.

PEG is to be drank along with other clear liquids the day before the scheduled procedure.

Your gastroenterologist will discuss with you your options and advise the best preparation method for you.

Here are 5 more ways you can prepare yourself for a colonoscopy

11. Will the Colonoscopy Prep Make Me Sick?

Colonoscopy prep is known to be inconvenient. Feelings of bloating, nausea, abdominal cramping, or chills are common but should decrease throughout the bowel preparation.

If you develop nausea or vomiting, stop the prep for a few minutes then resume the process.

DISCLAIMER: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

The information on this website is to provide general guidance. In no way does any of the information provided reflect definitive medical advice and self-diagnoses should not be made based on information obtained online. It is important to consult a Gastroenterologist or medical doctor regarding ANY and ALL symptoms or signs including, but not limited to: abdominal pain, haemorrhoids or anal / rectal bleeding as it may a sign of a serious illness or condition. A thorough consultation and examination should ALWAYS be performed for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. Be sure to call a physician or call our office today and schedule a consultation.

Cancer of Small Intestine – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Cancer of Small Intestine – Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

At GIDOCJHB, we offer advanced care for people with small intestine cancer.
We create a personalised treatment plan based on factors such as the characteristics of your tumor, your health history, and your family’s medical history.

Our approach incorporates all aspects of diagnosis, treatment, and supportive care.

Dr. Schneider will determine where your cancer started and how far it has progressed.

We aim to provide the diagnostics (tests) and treatment for small intestine cancer, and your care plan will be custom-made to treat your specific small intestine cancer.

What is Cancer of the Small Intestine?

The small intestine is part of the body’s digestive system, which also includes the esophagus, stomach, and large intestine.

The small intestine is a long tube that connects the stomach to the large intestine. In total, the small bowel makes up about 75% of the human body’s entire digestive system.

The small bowel plays a critical role in the breakdown and absorption of food, so that important vitamins, minerals, and nutrients can be absorbed into the body.

Small intestine cancer (also known as small bowel cancer) is a rare form of cancer that occurs when cells in the small bowel begin to grow out of control.

Over time, small bowel cancer may grow and block the small intestine. The most common type of small bowel cancer is carcinoid tumour followed by adenocarcinoma.

small intestine cancer symptoms - Cancer of Small Intestine - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment 

Small Intestine Cancer Early Signs and Symptoms

In the early stages, symptoms may be vague and hard to connect to cancer. Often, the first symptom is pain in the stomach area. This pain is often cramping related and may not be constant.

For example, it may start or get worse after you eat. As the tumor gets larger, it can slow the passage of digested food through the intestine.

This can lead to increased pain. If the tumor gets large enough, it can cause an obstruction.

Other digestive problems can cause similar symptoms. However, some early warning signs and common symptoms of small intestine cancer include:

  • Pain in the belly (abdomen)
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness and feeling tired (fatigue)
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Dark-colored stools (from bleeding into the intestine)
  • Low red blood cell counts (anemia)
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)

Call your gastroenterologist if you have any of these symptoms.

Even if the cause isn’t small bowel cancer, they might be signs of other health problems that need treatment.

If you’d like to find out more about the symptoms of small intestine cancer, click here.

Early Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

Gastroenterologists define staging based on:

  • How deep the tumor has penetrated the lining of the small intestine.
  • Whether the cancer cells have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Whether cancer has spread to other organs.

Gastroenterologists stage the progress of small intestine adenocarcinoma as follows:

  • Stage 0 — the tumor hasn’t gone beyond the top layer of mucosa cells in the small intestine.
  • Stage I — the tumor has grown into deeper cells but hasn’t yet spread to lymph nodes.
  • Stage II — this stage can be A, B, or C. It depends on how deeply the tumor has grown into the cells.
  • Stage III — this stage can also be A, B, or C, depending on how many lymph nodes the cancer has spread to.
  • Stage IV — cancer has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body, such as liver or lungs

 

Small Intestine Cancer Risk Factors and Causes

Not all of the risk factors below may cause this cancer, but they may be contributing factors. They include:

  • Age 60 or older
  • Consuming frequent Alcohol or tobacco
  • Being male
  • Celiac disease
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Diet high in fat or in cured or smoked foods
  • There is also a small increase in risk for those who have had radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix.
  • Family history

 cancer of small intestine healthy lifestyle - Cancer of Small Intestine - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Prevention

It’s still not yet clear what may help to reduce the risk of small intestine cancer, since it’s a rare form of cancer. However, If you’re interested in reducing your risk of cancer in general, it may help to:

  • Eat a Balanced and Healthy Diet

A variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants, which give you body the energy and nutrients to help fight off diseases and lower your risk.

  • Cut out Alcohol

If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount of alcohol you drink with the aim of eliminating it completely.

  • Stop Smoking

If you’re struggling with quitting, talk to your gastroenterologist about ways to quit that may work for you.

  • Exercise Regularly

Getting your heart rate up and body moving, stretching, and working is important.  Try to get at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days.

  • Maintain a Healthy Body Weight

If you need to lose weight, ask your gastroenterologist about healthy ways to achieve your goal, combined with an eating plan.


colonoscopy procedure johannesburg - Cancer of Small Intestine - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

How Is Small Intestine Cancer Diagnosed?

The type of tests to diagnose small bowel cancer will vary depending on the symptoms and type of small bowel cancer.

Your diagnostic tests may include:

  • Physical Exam and History

An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual.

  • Blood Tests

Blood samples can show signs of infection or changes in your liver function. The results tell your doctors which further tests may be useful.

  • Endoscopy

An endoscopy may also be performed to examine the small intestine and surrounding organs in more detail.

  • Biopsy

The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer.

  • Imaging

Specialized imaging tests can identify cancerous cells (lesions) in your intestinal tract.
Your gastroenterologist may order X-rays, CT scans or MRI scans to help understand a tumor’s location and type.

 cancer of small intestine chemotherapy 1 - Cancer of Small Intestine - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

 

Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

Different types of treatments are available for patients with small intestine cancer. Small intestine cancer treatment usually involves surgery.

After surgeons remove the tumor, you may need follow-up care including radiation or chemotherapy. Your treatment options may include:

  • Surgery

Resection or bypass surgery is the most common treatment of small intestine cancer.

  • Radiation Therapy

After surgery, your gastroenterologist may recommend radiation therapy, which uses powerful X-rays to destroy cancer cells.

  • Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.

 

    DISCLAIMER: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

    The information on this website is to provide general guidance. In no way does any of the information provided reflect definitive medical advice and self-diagnoses should not be made based on information obtained online. It is important to consult a Gastroenterologist or medical doctor regarding ANY and ALL symptoms or signs including, but not limited to: abdominal pain, haemorrhoids or anal / rectal bleeding as it may a sign of a serious illness or condition. A thorough consultation and examination should ALWAYS be performed for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. Be sure to call a physician or call our office today and schedule a consultation.